Friday, 7 July 2017

Stanley & West Hallam Brickworks


J. Barber

John Barber, Stanley. Photo by Frank Lawson.

There were two brickmakers who operated at this site in Stanley, Derbyshire, of which I have got an example by one of the makers, John Barber. These bricks were produced from the clay/shale which was found between the seams of coal at the adjoining colliery. Information for the brickworks at Stanley was rather sketchy until I came across an article on the web by Michael Robinson, a local historian in Stanley. Michael wrote that he had found a brickworks & cottages on Sough lane, now Dale Road marked on an Ordnance Survey map dated 1841 & then in White's 1857 Trade Directory I found that John Barber is listed as brickmaker & colliery owner in Stanley. 

Reverse of J. Barber. Photo by Frank Lawson.

Update 17.8.16 - I have recently found this surveyed 1880/1 map which shows the location of the brickworks owned by John Barber then the Small Brothers.

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1880/1.

Small Brothers

The small pit & brickworks was then sold on the 13th of October 1858 to the Small Brothers, who set about sinking a deeper mine which was opened in 1870. It was at this time that the Small Brothers formed the Stanley Kilbourne Colliery Company. I have yet to find a brick in this name, but the Small Brothers also leased the colliery in Kilburn & I have a brick made by the Brothers at that works & it is stamped with the brothers initials & Kilburn on the reverse & this brick features in my Kilburn Post. The Stanley Kilbourne Colliery Company due to financial difficulties closed in 1885. 
I have found that after 1885 the brickworks ceased to exist but Stanley Kilbourne Colliery was later sold to the newly formed Derby Kilburn Colliery Company in 1893. After DKCC established their coal business they opened a brickworks at Chaddesden Hill & more can be read about this works in my Derby Brickworks - part 2 Post. 
I originally thought DKCC had taken over the brickworks at Stanley Kilbourne Colliery, but with finding that this brickyard does not show on the 1900 OS map it was back to the drawing board in finding DKCC's brickworks. It was through studying a 1900 map & following a tramway from Stanley that it reveal the location of DKCC's brickworks at Chaddesden Hill.

West Hallam


Photo taken at the Silk Mill Museum, Derby.

I have three options for the maker of this Hallam brick, my first option & first choice is G. Adamson & he is listed as brickmaker at West Hallam in Kelly’s 1864 edition. From the style of the lettering on this brick it indicates to me that it was made around 1864. G. Adamson may have owned the Mapperley Crossroads yard as shown on the 1900 map below which is in my second option. I have also found that this yard is also shown on the 1880 map, so it could well have been there in 1864.

My second option from a web article is the Newdigate family. Their brickworks was situated near to Mapperley Crossroads just to the north of West Hallam village & had been built in the early 1900's next to the family's saw mill & this brickworks is shown on the 1900 map below. I have also found from an article in the Ilkeston Pioneer newspaper that there was a previous brickworks on this site in 1885. The owner Colonel Newdigate had instructed Mr. Wright Lissett to sell by auction all of the plant, machinery, brick presses & moulds from the brickworks. As said a sawmill followed this brickworks after 1885 & another brickworks was built again by the Newdigate family in the early 1900's. This 1900's brickworks then became a pottery & two bee-hive kilns were built in the 1920's of which one was demolished in the 1950's, but the most interesting fact is that I found in this article was that these two bee-hive kilns had been built using the bricks from the original bee-hive kiln & buildings of the 1900 brickworks & sawmill. I then ask, could these bricks have also come from the original brickworks in 1885, it's possible ! 
Todays Kiln Close also occupies part of this former brickworks site & all of the fields which surrounds the word West on the map below, have all had houses built upon them & forms part of West Hallam. 

My third option is for a brickmaker with the name of Hallam, but as yet I have not found no trade directory entries for a brickmaker with that name. 

Some of the Newdigate information for this entry was found in this link.

West Hallam Colliery Co.

Photo by MF courtesy of Erewash Museum, Ilkeston.

West Hallam Colliery & it's associated brickworks was on High Lane, West Hallam & I first use the 1900 OS below to show their locations. The colliery is recorded in mining references as being in production from 1893 to 1933, with the colliery still listed in 1940, but with no men recorded as being either below or on the surface. 
Originally this colliery consisted of four pits & the one marked West Hallam Colliery on the 1900 map is shown as No. 4 pit on the 1879 map. Also on the 1879 map (shown below the 1900 map) there is a brick kiln marked just to the right of No. 4 pit. We then find by the 1900 map a new larger brickworks had been established next to the Nutbrook Canal & had been built on the site of the former West Hallam Iron Works, which is shown on the 1879 map along with West Hallam Colliery No.1 pit. 

The brickworks as shown on 1900 map must have closed around 1912 as this brickworks is no longer shown on the next map dated 1913. As said the colliery appears to have closed by 1940.

I originally attributed the WHC brick below to William Horridge, brickmaker at Cotmanhay, but there is the possibility that WHC stands for West Hallam Colliery. We may never know for certain who actually made this brick, only
the person who donated it to the Silk Mill Museum in Derby will have the answer, but I expect too many years have elapsed since then to trace the finder of this brick. I have since found that the Museum has very few records for their bricks. 

Photographed at the Silk Mill Museum, Derby by Frank Lawson.

Many Thanks to :-
Erewash Museum, Ilkeston
Silk Mill Museum, Derby
Frank Lawson
NLS/Ordnance Survey

Monday, 17 April 2017

Newark, Orston, Kelham, Ossington & Caunton Brickworks

Newark Brick Co.

Photo by MF, courtesy of Newark & Sherwood Museum Services.

The main shareholder in the Newark Brick Co. was Mrs. Emily Blagg, who was locally known as "Newark's Lady Builder," but I first start with the events that lead up to Mrs. Blagg opening this works in 1925.

Emily Stevens (1863-1935) moved to Newark in 1883 from Altringham, Cheshire to work for a clothing company called Coopers, where she stayed until 1903. By which time she had become the buyer for the clothing company visiting Paris on many occasions. After leaving this company she acquired a large number of shares in a brickworks in Dinnington, Yorkshire & she is also thought to have owned the small brickworks which was on Clay Lane in Newark at this date. It was now that she became a property developer, purchasing land off London Road & over the next three years building the houses known as The Park. In 1905 & aged 42 Emily married butcher William Blagg & they went to live at No. 2 The Park for eight years. After building more quality houses on Lime Grove which became to be known as Newark's most elegant & much sought after place to live, Emily built her own home at 131, Lime Grove which was started in 1912 & was called The Lodge. It was here that Emily & her husband would spend the rest of their lives.

Emily then built Newark's first motion picture cinema called the Kinema on Baldergate, which opened it's doors on the 20th December 1913. A few years later Emily built another cinema, The Palace on Appletongate which opened in July 1920 & is thought to have been made using bricks from her Clay Lane, Newark brickworks & some from the brickworks at Dinnington. Within a year Emily had sold her two cinemas to a group of Sheffield business men who operated cinemas in that city.

In April 1921 Emily went into partnership with Frank M. Johnson forming Blagg & Johnson, metal pipe & guttering manufacturers on Massey Street in Newark. It was to be on Massey Street that Emily was to later build her brickworks which fronted on to this street. The engineering works was built to the rear of this site & while excavations were taking place for this building, good quality brick making clay was found & not to miss an opportunity Mrs Blagg then built part of the engineering works notably the steel stores on supporting piers so that the clay could continue to be extracted from under the building. The exact date of the opening of the brickworks is unknown, but Mrs Blagg registered the The Newark Brick Co. at Companies House, Cardiff on the 25th May 1925. 

  © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1937.

On the 1937 map above I have coloured Massey Street purple, the engineering works green & the location of the brickworks yellow, as it had closed by this 1937 map & all of the brickworks had been demolished. Situated between the brickworks & the factory & shown on this map where a row of five terraced houses originally known as Palethorpe's Buildings, then later Beacon Terrace/Row. They had been built in 1827/30 & where continually occupied until they were demolished in 1951. One these houses was occupied by William Smyth who fired the kilns for Mrs Blagg.

The directors of the Newark Brick Co. were Mrs Emily Blagg, her brother, Walter William Stevens, builder, Robert Vickers, Clarence Wade & Annie Maria Adlington with Mrs Blagg owning the majority of the shares. Alan Menmuir was incharge of the day to day running of the two works with Mrs Blagg overseeing her interests on a daily basis, attending the works from 9.30 to 3.30 every working day.

An account of the brickworks published in 1927 records that the plant was highly mechanised with a light railway constantly bring clay from the pit to the grinding pan which crushed the clay before sending it for screening & then to the mixing machine. The mixed clay ending up at the pug-mill where a machine then forced it into moulds, which where then pressed. After drying using the waste heat from an adjacent cooling kiln which had previously been used, up to 200,000 bricks where then loaded into another one of the kilns.  

After a share issue was not taken up by the public a motion was put to the Board at a special meeting on the 27th February 1928 to put the brickworks into Liquidation. This motion was later passed with the works closing on the 4th February 1929. It is unknown if the brickworks closed because of the shortfall in the sale of these shares or if the clay had simply run out on site. I have found no trade directory entries for the Newark Brick Co. during it's three/four years of production. The engineering works continued under Mrs Blagg's guidence until her death at the age of 72 in April 1935. Blagg & Johnson still continue to this day, with their works now situated on Brunel Drive. As a footnote the old claypit void underneath the floor of the engineering works was put to good use as an air raid shelter during WW2 for the company's worker force.

I am indebted to Tim Warner of the Newark Advertiser who's articles on Mrs Blagg appeared in this newspaper many moons ago & the information taken from these articles has been used with the newspaper's permission. A more detailed account about Mrs Blagg by Tim Warner can be read at these links. This link contains two photos, one of the brickworks & one of the engineering works on Massey Street.

Clay Lane, Newark & Caunton Brickworks

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1883.

As previously mentioned, Mrs Blagg owned a brickworks on Clay Lane, Newark & this works can be seen on the 1883 map above coloured green & situated not to far from Massey Street (coloured purple where the railway line loops round). It is thought that this works was operated by Mrs Blagg from the early 1900's up to 1920, but this cannot be verified.
With this brickworks being shown on this 1883 map, I have a trade directory entry for Duke & Smith owning this brickworks on Clay Lane in Kelly's 1881 edition. I have further entries for William Duke at Lowdham in Kelly's 1876, 1881 editions & the 1885 edition reads William Duke, 6, Victoria Street, Newark (home), works Lowdham. I am taking it that this William Duke is the same man as in the partnership of Duke & Smith. I next find that Thomas Smith is listed as brickmaker at Caunton in Kelly's 1876 edition. So it appears that Thomas was in partnership with William Duke by 1881 at the Clay Lane brickworks. Below is a photo of a brick made by Thomas which was taken by Frank Lawson & who has since donated this brick to Newark & Sherwood Museum Services.  

Photo by Frank Lawson.

Robert Lineker, Newark

Photo by Frank Lawson. Frank has now donated this brick to Newark & Sherwood Museum Services.

Reverse of Lineker. Photo by Frank Lawson.

Robert Lineker is listed as brickmaker in White's 1853 edition at Beacon Hill, Newark, then in Kelly's 1855 edition he is listed at Balderton, Newark. From a family website a Robert Lineker is recorded in the 1851 Census as living at Balderton, but there is no listing of his profession, but I think he is our man as a list of his children's baptisms records him as brick & tile manufacturer on this web page. The exact location of his works is unknown. The 1853 entry lists him at Beacon Hill & his works was more than likely on Beacon Hill as the 1855 entry of Balderton may have been his home address same as recorded in the 1851 Census. It is from an article on the web about VOB that Robert Lineker is mention as a small independent gypsum, plaster, brick & tile manufacturer in Newark who was brickmaking between 1850 & 1860. Robert had completed an independent survey for the VOB on it's gypsum & clay reserves at both Orston & Newark. No exact date is given for this report, but a date of 1865 is given when the company issued a prospectus for the raising of share capital which included this report. The article goes on to say that from 1856 Robert Lineker got into financial difficulties that forced him eventually to sell his property & close his business by 1860. Apparently in November 1859 a court judgement was made against Robert Lineker for a debt of £332 owing to William Newton, who was a banker & a share holder in the Vale of Belvoir & Newark Plaster Company. So it looks like Robert sold up to repay this debt. 

The web article goes on to say that Robert Lineker in 1860 was calling himself a farmer. Then in 1861 Lineker is described as brickmaker & had entered into a partnership with Samuel Fretwell, a builder & stonemason in Newark as brick & tile manufacturers. There are no trade directory entries for this partnership & it may have been short lived as we next find that Samuel Fretwell is only listed as builder in White's 1864 edition & Lineker is not listed. 

Now finding this Samuel Fretwell info sent a tingle down my spine, as they say, as my name is Fretwell ! As far as I know I am not directly connected to this Newark branch of the Fretwell family. Research by my Cousin Jean has revealed that the Fretwell's "followed the coal" & everywhere you find a colliery in the East Midlands, you will find a miner by the name of Fretwell. Apparently it all started in Scunthorpe & the Fretwell's moved east, colliery to colliery, thus ending up in Nottinghamshire & Derbyshire. My Grandad in Huthwaite was a miner & he had 8 brothers & his father was one 8 brothers, so going back to my great great grandfather's brothers, there may be a connection to Newark, the date of the 1860's then fits.

Vale of Belvoir & Newark Plaster Co.

Belvoir bricks were made by the Vale of Belvoir & Newark Plaster Co. at their three brickworks, situated at Beacon Hill, Newark; Bowbridge Lane, Balderton, Newark (also recorded as the Lowfield Works) & in the village of Orston near Newark where the company had been founded in 1867 & had their largest brickworks. Gypsum & plaster were also produced at these three works & I have found that the Company also owned other works in Newark where they only produced plaster products. Below are four maps showing the four brickworks owned by the company & includes the old & new works at Lowfield. Orston which is in Nottinghamshire, lies within the Vale of Belvoir, hence the company's name.  

  © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1883.
Orston Works in 1883.

  © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1899.
Beacon Hill Works in 1899.

  © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1899.
Bowbridge Works in 1899. (later known as Lowfield).

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1915.
2nd Lowfield Brickworks in 1915.

I first start three years earlier in the build-up to the formation of the Vale of Belvoir & Newark Plaster Co. & in 1864 William Jacobs who quarried gypsum & produced plaster at his Trent Works in Newark purchased the Royal Plaster Works situated in the village of Orston from Willis & Co. of London who were on the verge of closing their Orston Works. William was then joined by James Carter an auctioneer & stock broker from Nottingham who then purchased land just south of the village of Orston & a larger gypsum, plaster & brick works was established next to the Great Northern Railway. This new works took two years to build & get operational. In the mean time in 1865 Jacobs & Carter in order to finance their new venture decided to raise share capital in their Vale of Belvoir & Newark Plaster, Cement & Mineral Company, but this venture failed to gain the required subscriptions despite it's good local publicity & appearing in London's financial newspapers. So despite this set back the works was opened on the 3rd of April 1866 & the company at first only made bricks during the summer months as their core activities were in producing cement, plaster & gypsum. Clay was only a by-product of this activity with it being found overlaying the gypsum & after testing was found to make good quality bricks which were used to build some of the buildings at this new Orston Works. 

So after this failed attempt to raise the required share capital a new company, The Vale of Belvoir & Newark Plaster Co. was formed in March 1867 with Jacobs & Carter being joined by James Hobson & Newark solicitor William Newton. William Jacobs became manager of the works & this new business started off well. Then in February 1868 the decision was made to expand the business by purchasing Stocker & Bell, another plaster manufacturer in Newark who were on the edge of closure. To finance this acquisition 350 new shares where issued to the partners in Hardy & Company, bankers in Grantham, who owned part of the lease of the land on which Stocker & Bell's works was sited. This is where things start to go downhill for VOB as the accounts had not been kept up to date. The company was then restructured in 1870 with the hope that new investors would be found, but this did not happen. In November 1870 William Jacobs wrote to a customer, "I am sorry to say that that we are quite out of bricks at our Orston Works, therefore shall not be able to send you any more until next season." So from this account the company was still only producing bricks in the summer months. VOB then advertised in the August 16th 1871 edition of the Newark Advertiser that they were making bricks at 5s per 1,000. I expect this advertisement was to entice customers back to the company.
As previously wrote the 1870 restructure did not solve VOB's financial problems & the company went into Liquidation on 12th May 1873. This is the notice that appeared in the Newark Advertiser dated October 1st 1873.
"Vale of Belvoir & Newark Plaster Co. into Liquidation."
For Sale -
Lot 1 - 7 acres at Orston inc. brick kilns.
Lot 2 - Bowbridge - kilns & brick plant; Beacon Hill & Mineral Hill, North Gate & Trent Works.
North Gate adapted for the manufacture of plaster of paris, cement, bricks, tiles etc.

Hardy & Co. who had previously been financial backers & share holders in VOB then purchased all the Works through a 3rd party (Mr Holland) at Auction. After which they continued to trade as The Belvoir & Newark Plaster Co. Then in 1897 Hardy & Co. sold VOB to Mr R.P. Almond who had been the General Manager at the Company. After this sale of the Company Hardy & Co. continued to be share holders in Almond's "new" Company until it closed. Kelly's 1900 trade directory records Almond's new company as The Belvoir & Newark Plaster Co. & still operating the three brickworks at Orston, Beacon Hill & Bowbridge (also recorded on maps as the Lowfield Works). Almond is next recorded in the two articles from which I have obtained this VOB information from, as owning the Orston plaster & brick works until it closed in 1920/1928. I have put both dates as these two articles contradicts each other on the closure date of the Orston Works. As to the brickworks at Beacon Hill & Bowbridge Road still being operational after Almond's purchase of VOB is "slightly in question", as the account of these two works is not recorded in the articles from which I have obtained most of the history of VOB from. I have found from trade directory entries that the Beacon Hill Works is last listed under Almond's Belvoir & Newark Plaster Co. in Kelly's 1900 edition & this works may have then been sold, as new owners, The Beacon Hill Brick Co. are listed at this works in Kelly 1904 edition & I write about the Beacon Hill Brick Co. later. The Bowbridge/Lowfield Works is last recorded as being owned by the Belvoir & Newark Plaster Co. in Kelly's 1904 edition, but this is also the last trade directory entry for the Orston Works. My only conclusion is that Almond still operated the Bowbridge Road Works along with the Orston Works until 1920/28 as we next find in Kelly's 1928 edition that Thomas Ward & Co. are listed as running the Bowbridge Road brickworks in Balderton. Thomas Ward continues to be listed as brickmaking at the Balderton Works in Kelly's 1932 & 36 editions, Directory of Newark 1938 edition, then Kelly's 1941 edition. The Government's Ministry of Works 1941 census of brickworks lists Thomas W. Ward Ltd. of Sheffield as operating the Vale of Belvoir Brickworks at Newark-on-Trent & extracting Keuper Marl (clay) for brickmaking. Then the 1949 edition of the British Clayworkers Directory lists Thomas Ward Ltd. at the Vale of Belvoir Works, New Balderton, Newark. The last trade directory entry found for Thomas Ward at New Balderton is in Kelly's 1950 edition. All these entries are the same works. 1950 was also the year that the brickworks closed as it is shown as disused on the 1950 map. Please note that this is the second brickworks to be built at Lowfield/Bowbridge Lane, Balderton & can be seen on the 1915 map above marked as the Lowfield Brickworks. 

No information has been found to say if Thomas Ward Ltd. were operating the plaster works at the Lowfield Works as well from 1928, so my only conclusion is that it may have closed before Ward's takeover of the brickworks in 1928. As of yet no bricks stamped Ward have been found. 
Until recently this former brickworks site (2nd brickworks) had been used as smallholdings, but now the whole of this area is in the process of being regenerated with Newark's new Southern Relief Road being built to take traffic from the A46 to the A1 & plans are a foot to build houses & industrial units on the land previously used as gypsum quarries owned by VOB & Cafferata. 

As I have slightly digressed I now return to the trade directory entries for the Vale of Belvoir & Newark Plaster Co., but first I quickly tell you that after the Orston Works had closed Mr. Almond's sister, Lissie Almond who was the leaseholder of the land, sold the property in 1928 to Lt.Col. N.G. Pearson. Pearson then gave the land to the Girl Guides Association who demolished the buildings in 1930 & created an adventure area. As of 1991, the date of the info article, the Girl Guide Association still owned & used this adventure site.

These are the trade directory listings for Vale of Belvoir & Newark Plaster Co. which are in the Brick & Tile Manufacturers Section.
Kelly's 1885 - Works, Beacon Hill, Newark; Bowbridge; Orston.
K. 1888 - Works, Beacon Hill, Newark.
K. 1891 - Works, Orston Sidings, GNR; Lowfield Sidings, GNR; Beacon Hill, Newark. Mr. Richard P. Almond, Manager.
White's 1894 - Works, Newark.

Belvoir & Newark Plaster Co. (now owned by Richard Almond).
Kelly's 1900 - Works, Orston Sidings, GNR; Lowfield Sidings, GNR; Beacon Hill, Newark.
K. 1904 - Works, Orston Sidings, GNR; Lowfield Sidings, GNR.

As previously recorded, Bowbridge & Lowfield are the same works on Bowbridge Road, Balderton, Newark.

Various Belvoir stamped bricks made by VOB.

Photo by MF, courtesy of Newark & Sherwood Museum Services.

These are the two links from which most of this information has come from & includes a more detailed account of VOB's financial woes & two photos, the Orston Works & one of VOB's gypsum quarries.,%20Not.pdf

Beacon Hill Brick Co. 

Photo by Mike Chapman.

The Beacon Hill Brick Co. (Newark) Ltd. are listed in Kelly's 1904 & 08 editions at Beacon Hill, Newark with registered offices at Beaumond Cross, Newark. The next snippet of info that I have for this brick company is that it is listed along with many other companies in the London Gazette dated 29th August 1913 as being struck off the Joint Stocks Register & as such the company had been dissolved. 

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1899.

1899 map showing the location of The Beacon Hill Brick Company's works which had previously been owned by the Belvoir & Newark Plaster Company. The 1915 map shows this former brickworks now as a Cement Works which was gone by the 1938 map. Today a steel fabrication works & houses now occupy part of this site with the rest being covered in trees.


William Cafferata a stocks & shares broker in Liverpool purchased The Newark Plaster Co. in June 1862. The company comprised of a gypsum quarry, a plaster mill, a brickworks & a boiler works which where all situated on Beacon Hill in Newark & I have used the 1899 map below to show their location. The works was known as the Great Northern Works. The first trade directory entry that I have found for the Beacon Hill brickworks appears in White's 1864 edition as Cafferata & Co. Great Northern Plaster Works, Beacon Hill, Newark.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1899.

At first William concentrated on producing large industrial Cornish & Lancashire boilers, but after a problem with a boiler exploding under pressure which resulted in several deaths in 1866, William then reduced production on that side of the business & concentrated on quarrying gypsum & producing plaster & bricks.

In 1867 the brickyard was producing 30,000 bricks per week. The quality of which unless burnt very hard would not withstand severe weather conditions & would soon crumble. On saying that houses built of these bricks still stand in Newark today.

William Cafferata died on the 5th September 1874 with his wife taking control of the Company with the help of her son Redmond Parker Cafferata. In 1881 Redmond purchased his mother's interests in the company for £12,000 pounds, which is equivalent to over one million pounds today. 

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1899.

With the reserves at the Beacon Hill quarry starting to deplete, Redmond then established a new gypsum quarry & brickworks at Hawton in 1874 & this new works can be seen on the 1899 map above. This Hawton works is shown on the 1875 map, but the quality of this map is not as good as the one used. The red coloured road is Bowbridge Road & the village of Hawton is just to the north-west of this map, with Newark town centre to the north.

Between 1892 & 1894 three of Redmond Parker's sons joined him at the company & in 1908 control of the company was passed over to his sons with Redmond Parker retiring. Financial problems hit the company as well as quality issues in their plaster production & it was not until 1922 that the company was re-organized & new cash was injected into the new company of Cafferata & Company Limited, which now included five of Redmond Parker's seven sons. The first Directors of this new Limited Company were Louis William Cafferata (Chairman and Managing Director), Hubert Marie Cafferata, Redmond Barton Cafferata and Bernard Joseph Cafferata, with Cyril Francis Cafferata as Secretary. By 1926 the family were enjoying large profits from the fruits of their labours. In 1928 Gerald Cafferata son of Redmond Barton joined the company straight from London University at the age of 22 & showed a keen interest in improving the quality of the companies plasters.  

The Beacon Hill brickworks had been closed during WW1 & when it reopened afterwards it was producing 100,000 bricks per week. Whether the Hawton brickworks was still in production after WW1 is unknown as the last trade directory entry for the Hawton brickworks is 1900 & the 1915 map only shows this works as gypsum quarries. 

1935 sees the opening of a new plaster & brickworks on 400 acres of land next to Jericho Lodge & this brick & plaster works can be seen on the 1950 map below & coloured green.  Kelly's 1936 edition lists this new brickworks at New Balderton on Bowbridge Lane. The Hawton works continues to be shown only as gypsum quarries at this date. 

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1950.

Also in 1935 Redmond Barton Cafferata retires to France & in 1936 the whole of the share capital in Cafferata & Co. Ltd. was acquired by The British Plaster Board Limited with both Hubert & Louis retiring. Although being taken over the company continued to operate under it's original name & Cyril Francis Cafferata was appointed chairman and joint managing director with Bernard Joseph Cafferata. Cyril retired in 1943 and Bernard left in 1946. Gerald Cafferata son of Redmond Barton & grandson of Redmond Parker Cafferata was subsequently appointed chairman and managing director & was the last of the family to work at the company.

The Beacon Hill brickworks continued to produce bricks until the start of WW2 when it closed due to the shortage of manpower & the slump in the building trade. The last trade directory entry for this works is in Kelly's 1941 edition. On the other hand the Jericho Lodge brickworks continued to be operational through out the duration of WW2. The last of the company's brickworks at Jericho Lodge closed in 1962 & in 1973 Gerald Cafferata retired ending over 100 years of continuous service of the Cafferata family working in Newark which was started by William Cafferata in 1862, Gerald's great grandfather. Today the former Beacon Hill works is an industrial site with access via Cafferata Way. Plans have been drawn up to build houses & industrial units on the Hawton plaster works & the Jericho Lodge plaster works is now owned by Saint Gobain Formula.    

The majority of the information used in this entry has been taken from Richard Cafferata's website, who I wish to thank. A more detailed account of the Cafferata's business & the history of the family in Newark can be read at this link.

Kelham Brick Co.

The Kelham Brick Company appears to have only been in operation for only a few years. The works is not shown on the 1899 map & is only shown as disused on the 1912 map. I have used the 1915 map below to show the location of this works on Broadgate Lane, Kelham. I have not found any trade directory entries for this company & the only reference found appears in the London Gazette dated 6th July 1920 when the Kelham Brick Company was struck off the Joint Stock Companies Register & as such the company had been dissolved. Most of the buildings belonging to this brickworks as shown on the 1915 map still stand today. The day I called by in 2013, a house was in the process of being built on the footprint of one of the original buildings & the rest of the buildings were being restored with plans to use them as outbuildings for storage. 

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1915.


JED reverse Clayton's Patent. 
Made using one of Henry Clayton's brickmaking machines. A link to information about these machines can be seen at the end of the post. 

JED = John Evelyn Denison, 1st Viscount Ossington owned Ossington Hall in the village of Ossington from 1820 to 1873. His estate brickworks is shown as disused on a map dated 1875 & I have used the 1883 map below to show it's location, also marked as disused. Both of these two JED bricks where found in the village of Ossington which is just north of Newark. T. Hempstock is listed as brickmaker in Ossington in Kelly's 1855 edition & there is the option that he may have worked for the Viscount & made these bricks or he may have just been an independent brickmaker working or living in the village ?

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1883.

 JED reverse Patent. 

The following two bricks are in Newark & Sherwood Museum Services Collection, but I have been unable identify the makers of these bricks. The initials do not match any Nottinghamshire trade directory entries, but if do identify the makers, I will update the post.

 J or I - R - N. I am taking it that the N stands for Newark.

S.R. Co.

Update 13.5.17.
I have now found that this S.R. Co. fire brick was more than likely made by Swann Radcliffe & Co. in Derbyshire & the company are listed in the Fire Brick Manufacturers section in these Kelly's editions, 1912, 25, 32, & 41 at Brassington, Wirksworth, Derbys. Cope’s 1937 edition also lists Swann Radcliffe & Co. (Brassington) Ltd. at Brassington, Wirksworth, Derbys. Info from the Brassington website records that the brickworks was actually at Hopton near Brassington & was employing 16 men in 1962. It goes on to say that the brickworks closed in 1971. 

I round off this post with a list of brickmakers/companies who are recorded in trade directories as operating in or around Newark. As of yet no named bricks have been found by any of these makers.

Brown & Ragsdale, Millgate & Beacon Hill, Newark, Kelly's 1853 edition.

N. Parkins, Caunton, Kelly's 1855 edition.

Robinson & Wilson, Stodman Street, Newark, White's 1864, then Stodman Street & Spring House Wharf, White's 1853, then William Robinson, Hawton, Newark & 2,Stodman Street, Kelly's 1876 edition.

Thomas Turner, Balderton, Newark, Kelly's 1876 & 1881 editions.

Fisher & Co. Besthorpe, Newark Kelly's 1876 edition.

Shelton Brick Co. Shelton, Newark, Kelly's 1881 edition. 

J. Sheppard, Millgate, White's 1853, Kelly's 1855, then White's 1864 edition at Beacon Hill & Millgate. 
Fellow brick enthusiast, Mike Chapman spotted this T. Sheppard brick in the grounds of Newark Castle next to the river. We think that it is a T, on the other hand it could be a fancy J & is dated 27th June 1837. I am wondering if T. Sheppard was J. Sheppard's father & made the bricks for this wall or could he have been a dignitary at the Council & just laid this brick in the wall ? 

Photo by Mike Chapman.

Link to fellow collector Mark Cranston's brick site which contains the article about Henry Clayton's patented brick making machines & includes many drawings of these machines.

I wish to Thank the following people in bringing this Post to the Web.
Newark & Sherwood Museum Services.
The Newark Advertiser & Tim Warner.
Ordnance Survey/National Library of Scotland.
Frank Lawson.
Mike Chapman.
Newark Library.
Richard Cafferata.
P. Barnes & R.J. Firman.
The London Gazette. 
Kelly's & White's Trade Directories.

Saturday, 1 April 2017

Sutton-in-Ashfield Brickmakers

Searching new trade directories has revealed the names of several "new brickmakers" which I have not previously wrote about who worked in Sutton-in-Ashfield, Notts. As of yet no bricks stamped by these makers have been found. 

I first use a 1877 map of Sutton & Skegby to show the possible locations of some of these brickmakers works because in most cases the exact location of their works is not given in trade directories. This is followed by another map of another part of Skegby where brickmaking also took place & more will be explained about that area of Skegby later. Then I cover a brickyard which was on Wild Hill, Teversal.

So after listing these "new" brickmakers I have then added the possible timeline to each of these works which are shown on the 1877 map, with information just gathered or previously wrote about. Please note that the orange coloured yard was not started until 1904 & in most cases each of these brickworks expanded in size over the years. I have also listed the timeline for two other yards which are not shown on this map.

  © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1877.

My first "new brickmaker" is Aaron Knighton & his listed in Kelly's 1876 edition at Skegby, Mansfield. Then John Lane is listed at Skegby, Mansfield in Kelly's 1885 edition. As to Skegby, Mansfield in these entries & in subsequent entries, Skegby at this date was a parish within the district of Mansfield, today it forms part of Sutton in Ashfield/Ashfield District. I then found that George Vallance is recorded at Skegby in Kelly's 1876 & 81 editions. Now trade directories between 1853 & 1872 record a George Vallance then Vallance & Sons as builders & brickmakers in Mansfield, so whether this Mansfield Vallance is the same man as the Skegby one, this I do not know, but the dates from the trade directories do follow on. There are two yards shown on this 1877 map which fall into the Parish of Skegby & these are the purple & green yards, but I have note because dates clash with other brickmakers operating at Skegby at this time, some of these Skegby entries may refer to the two brickworks which where in another part of Skegby & I write about these yards later.

Kelly's 1876 edition lists Robert Boot at Eastfield Side, S-in-A. & this may have been the red works, but this cannot be confirmed. Robert Boot may have been the father or brother to George Boot who was a brickmaker from 1904 in Sutton, but again this cannot be confirmed.

William Bilson is listed at Eastfield, Sutton in White's 1864 edition, then in Morris's 1869 edition William is listed as Brick & Tile Manufacturer at Eastfield Side, Sutton with Richard Carter as Manager. So William's yard will have been the red coloured yard. Now this 1869 entry records Richard Carter as Manager of this works & we next find in White's 1872 edition that Richard Carter had started working at his own works in Skegby, (the purple coloured works & I have wrote about Richard Carter in my Thomas Slack Post).

Kelly's 1853 edition records brickmaker John Miller as living at Dalestorth House, Sutton & White's 1853 edition actually records his works address as Eastfield Side, Sutton, so this could be the red coloured works. John Miller is then listed in Kelly's 1855 edition at Dalestorth, Skegby. Further investigation has revealed that John Miller a farmer & maltster acquired Dalestorth House in the early 1900's. It was then his nephew, also John Miller together with his wife who were to open a "An Establishment for Young Ladies' in 1852 at their 18th century built Dalestorth House. For the sum of 20 guineas per annum young ladies of the area would receive instruction on plain and ornamental needlework, reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, composition, history, geography and French. So it appears from the trade directory dates that this second John Miller is our brickmaker. Today the house is a B & B together with a garden centre set within it's grounds.

I now write about two brickmakers who worked at a brickworks which was at the side of Blackmires Farm & is not shown on the map above. The yard was situated about half a mile south off the bottom of this map on Coxmoor Road & next to Sutton Reservoir. By the way Coxmoor Road joins Eastfield Side road (which is shown on this map going south) at the junction with Garden Lane. So Charles Lindley is listed at Blackmires in White's 1844 edition with John Baines as Manager. Then Charles Lindley is next listed in White's 1853 edition again at Blackmires. 
The 1861 Census records William Tomlinson as Master Brickmaker & living/boarding with William Clay at Blackmires Cottage. This cottage could have been on Blackmires Lane, which ran from Newark Road to Blackmires Farm & is now named Hamilton Road. So this William Tomlinson may have worked at or owned the Blackmires brickworks before William Beeley. I have wrote about William Beeley & his son William junior in a previous post. 

I now move on to the Timeline for the brickworks marked on the 1877 map above. Please note that the dates given are from trade directories or from info found & I would like to say that this timeline is 100% accurate, but I am unable to do so. The brickmakers who I am not sure if they worked at that yard are marked with an asterisk. 

Green Works on Forest Road, Skegby. This yard is shown on maps dated 1877 to 1938.
George Vallance* 1876 - 1881.
John Lane* 1885.
Henry Shaw 1894 - 1916. 
Sutton in Ashfield Brick Co. 1928. Owned by Mr. Shaw. Please note that this Mr. Shaw may have been Henry's son & named Walter. Walter may have continued to run this works after Henry had finished brickmaking until 1928 when he then formed the S-in-A. Brick Co. Also see Red Works entry.

Purple Works on Dalestorth Road, Skegby. Please note that the parish boundary follows the length of this road (dotted line) with the north side being Skegby & the south side being Sutton. This yard is shown on maps dated 1877 to 1938.
Richard Carter 1872 - 1878.
Thomas Slack 1891 - 1899.
Aaron Barke 1904 & then Barke Brothers 1912 - 1916. Also see Blue Works entry.

Pale Yellow Works on Dalestorth Road, Sutton. This yard is shown on maps dated 1877 to 1938.
Walter Straw 1895 - 1906/7. Also owned the two Potteries marked on this map.
George Boot 1908 - 1916.
S.E. Carding & Son* 1922 - 1925. There is the option that Carding & Son operated the purple works at these dates.
Boot Brothers 1928 - 1933. Sons of George.

Orange Works on Mansfield Road, but access was via a lane off Skegby Road which today is Hill Crescent. Only shown on 1913 & 1917 maps as disused. Not on 1898 map.
George Boot 1904 - 1908.

Blue Works on Mansfield Road. This yard is shown on maps dated 1875, 1898 & then marked disused on the 1913 map. 
Aaron Barke 1871 - 1900 .
Mrs. Louise Barke 1904.
Aaron is then recorded at Skegby in 1904 & 1908, followed by his sons George & John who are recorded as Barke Brothers in 1912 to 1916 at Skegby. See Purple Yard.

Red Works on Mansfield Road/ Eastfield Side. Earlier maps show this New Cross area of Sutton as a open field called East Field. This yard is shown on maps dated 1877 to 1898. Works had closed sometime after 1904 & was gone by the 1913 map.
John Miller 1853 - 1855.
William Bilson 1864 - 1869 with Richard Carter as Manager.
Robert Boot 1876. (possibly at this works).
Henry Shaw 1864 -1885. There is the possibility that Henry continued to own this works up to 1904 as well as owning the Green Works on Forest Road.
Walter Shaw 1904. More than likely Henry's son & the owner of the Sutton in Ashfield Brick Co. in 1928 at the green coloured works. Also see Green Works entry. 

I now list the two brickworks which are not shown on the 1877 map above.
Blackmires Brickyard was situated between Sutton Reservoir & Blackmires Farm, just to the south on this map on Coxmoor Road. This yard is shown on the 1877 map, but only the clay pit is shown on the 1898 map.
Charles Lindley 1844 to 1853 with John Baines as Manager.
William Tomlinson* 1861.
William Beeley senior 1864 up to 1885.
William Beeley junior 1876 up to 1885.

Priestsic Road - near town centre. Only on 1898 map.
William Beeley senior 1885.
William junior & John Beeley as Beeley Brothers 1885 possibly up to 1898.

This just leaves Aaron Knighton of Skegby in 1876 not yet assigned to a yard, but there is the option that he may have worked in this other part of Skegby where two more brick yards were situated & I write about these two yards little later in the post after I have wrote about the Skegby Colliery Lime & Brick Co.

  © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1876.

After finding a 1872 trade directory entry for the Skegby Colliery Lime & Brick Company I then delved into the web to find information & the location of this colliery as I had not come across it before. So I first slightly digress to tell you about this colliery & Skegby/Stanton Hill. 
I first use the 1876 map above to show the location of Skegby Colliery (coloured yellow), then the 1898 map below shows that Skegby Colliery was at the end of Wharf Road in what we now know as Stanton Hill, but why was it called Skegby Colliery. Further investigation has revealed that the village of Stanton Hill did not exist in 1876 & this area where the colliery had been sunk was in the Parish of Skegby, hence it's name. The Dodsley family of Skegby Hall were the Lords of the Manor & owners of this land & they sunk Skegby Colliery sometime in the early 1800's, the actual date is unknown. Local Historian Bill Clay-Dove wrote in his book that in 1847 coal production was recorded as only being small compared to modern outputs with an average output of 500 tons per month. Some of the coal was used by Dodsley himself to operate his colliery, lime kilns & brickworks. The Stanton Ironworks Co. then sunk Butcherwood Colliery (Teversal) in 1867 & Silverhill Colliery in 1878 with the Company then building houses for it's workers at Cooperative Street, Institute Street & Cross Row starting in 1877. These streets were to be later known as Stanton Hill in the Parish of Skegby in 1881. The first entry for Stanton Hill appears in the 1871 Census, but only as the name of a street in the Parish of Skegby. Further houses were then built by the Stanton Ironworks Co. at Meden Bank in 1880, but these houses have since been replaced with Council built houses, possibly around the 1970's. Bill records these 1880 Meden Bank houses as being demolished around 1963. It is also thought that Stanton Hill was named after the Stanton Ironworks Company with them building these houses. 
You will see another colliery which I have coloured red on these maps & this pit was sunk in 1873, again by the Dodsley's who first named it New Skegby Colliery. This pit then took on the name of Brierley Colliery as it was sunk by miners who had come from Brierley Hill in Staffordshire. By the time the Blackwell Colliery Co. had taken over this pit it had been renamed Sutton Colliery & had been named after Sutton Colliery Limited which had been formed from the Skegby Colliery Lime & Brick Co., but this pit was always affectionally known as Brierley. The original Skegby Colliery which I have coloured yellow closed in 1887. 

Now back to the brickworks at Skegby Colliery & the first trade directory entry that I have found for this brickworks is in Morris's 1869 edition & the entry is Skegby Colliery Co., coal owners, lime & brick manufacturers, Skegby with Richard B. Henson as Manager. Then the entry in White's 1872 edition is Skegby Colliery Lime & Brick Co., Skegby. Although both these two maps do not indicate which are the brickyard buildings, the clay pit is shown next to the colliery (yellow). I have also coloured Wharf Road yellow on the 1898 map below to show you the distance this colliery was from Stanton Hill, it was almost in Huthwaite. As to the Lime kilns owned by Skegby Colliery these may have been the lime kins that I have coloured green on the 1876 map above & where situated on Stoneyford Lane (now Road). Some small holdings & Fisher Close now occupies this former lime producing works. I have also found that there are some lime kilns & quarry marked on the 1875 map nearly opposite Skegby Hall on Mansfield Road, so more than likely these lime kilns were also owned by John Dodsley.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1898.

I now write about the two brickyards which where next to the New Skegby Colliery (aka Brierley & later Sutton) in Skegby as shown on the 1876 map below. Please note that road which was used to access these two works was called Rooley Lane at this date & was later renamed Brand Lane as shown on the 1898 map above. I have no proof, but there is the possibility that the yard which I have coloured purple may have been owned by the colliery with the Skegby Colliery Co. previously owning a brickyard at their other colliery site & this purple yard is connected to the colliery via a lane. So this theory does look promising, if I only had written proof !!!

  © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1876.

So as previously wrote I was unable to allot a yard to Aaron Knighton who is listed at Skegby in Kelly's 1876 edition & this blue coloured yard may have been his works as the criteria of Skegby in 1876 fits, with this area of Skegby then becoming known as Stanton Hill after 1881. As said earlier in the post Aaron Knighton may have worked at one of the yards which was on the Sutton side of Skegby & it might have been George Vallance that was at this blue coloured yard in 1876 & 1881 ?  Both these two brickyards are no longer shown on the 1898 map.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1898.

I finish the post with a brickworks which was situated on Wild Hill at the junction with Chesterfield Road in an area of Sutton in Ashfield which is called City of Whiteborough. It is unknown why this area has got this name as it only consisted of a few cottages, farms & farm land at this date as shown on the 1898 map. Wild Hill is the road (red) which connects Teversal to Tibshelf. I have been unable to find any information about this brickworks neither from trade directories or from Sutton Library. I have even asked someone who I know & has lived all his life on Wild Hill & this brickworks was unknown to him also. So this one will remain a mystery unless new information turns up. If anyone has any information about this works or any other brickworks in this post, please get in touch. Thanks.