Wednesday, 30 September 2015

Chesterfield & Staveley Brickworks


 Wasp Nest Brick Co.


I first start with the wonderfully named Wasp Nest Brick Company which was located off Old Hall Road in Chesterfield. From this first map below dated 1900 it shows a row of cottages from which the brickworks was to be named.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

The Wasp Nest Brick Company is first recorded in Kelly's 1912 edition on Old Hall Road, Chesterfield through to it's 1922 edition. This brickworks had been started by two local builders Edward Silcock & Edwin Hattersley, joiner Arthur Heath & butcher Arthur Gibbons on the disused site of Old Brampton Colliery with access to the brickworks off Old Hall Road SK363714. The works next appears as the Chesterfield Brick Co. in Kelly's 1925 & 28 editions on Old Hall Road. This is the second use of the Chesterfield Brick Co. name, the first being on a different site in 1899 & I believe there is no connection between the two. Kelly's 1932 edition then lists the works back again as the Wasp Nest Brick Co. 
The next three editions of Kelly's in 1932,36 & 41 sees yet another name change to The Chesterfield Brick Co.(1934) Ltd. Wasp Nest Brickworks, Old Hall Road, Chesterfield.
The works finally closed in the mid 1940's.


© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of Ordnance Survey 1918.

1918 map showing the location of the Wasp Nest Brickworks on Old Hall Road & next to this works was Ashgate Pottery which had previously been known as the Inkerman Brick Co. & that works I cover next.



Malcolm Adlington has contacted me with some information which his relation Michael Hardy has compiled about their family's connection to the Wasp Nest Brickworks & that Michael has family records stating that the Wasp Nest Works first opened around 1838. I can only conclude that Edward Slater, Malcolm & Michael's ancestor produced bricks on the same site as the 1912 Wasp Nest Brick Co. did some 74 years earlier under the same name.
Malcolm writes :- An ancestor of mine Edward Slater was Master Brickmaker at Wasp Nest, please find attached a j-peg. image of newspaper cutting relating to the death of my ancestor's widow at Wasp Nest in 1848. 
Anne's assailant, Henry Young, was jailed for two months for manslaughter at Derby Assizes.



Michael Hardy has done more research on his Slater Family as Master Brickmakers in Derbyshire which includes making bricks at Chatsworth Hall & a brick yard at Pewit. 
This info can be read at this link. http://www.oldminer.co.uk/pewit-brickworks.html 
Also see my article on the Twenty Well Brick Works, Sheffield which includes Slater info received from Michael.
https://uknamedbricks.blogspot.com/2015/09/sheffield-brickworks.html



Inkerman Brick Co. 

Photo by Frank Lawson.

The Inkerman Brick Co. is listed in Kelly's 1895 edition at St. Thomas', New Brampton, Chesterfield & was just off Ashgate Road as marked on the map below. I have found from the Friends of the Inkerman website that bricks labelled IBC - Inkerman Brick Co. were used in the building of four cottages called Inkerman Cottages around 1895.
In Kelly's 1899 & 1900 editions it now records this works as the Chesterfield Brick Co. Chesterfield Works, Ashgate Road, New Brampton, Chesterfield. This new company went into liquidation in 1901 & the brick making plant was sold at auction on the 20th May 1901. After which the site then became a stoneware pottery owned Tom Heath with it then becoming Ashgate Pottery in 1913 owned by Tom together with a consortium of local businessmen. Today the whole area now covering Inkerman Brick Works/Ashgate Pottery & the Wasp Nest Brickworks is Inkerman Park.


 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

As wrote in the Wasp Nest post, the Chesterfield Brick Company name was first used at the Inkerman site in 1899 & as yet I have found no connection to the Wasp Nest Brick Co. who's name was changed to C.B.C. in 1925.


Photo by Frank Lawson from the David Penney Collection.



Brampton


Although I cannot find any reference to a Brampton Brick Co. there were many small makers operating in the Brampton area namely E Taylor in 1855, J. Watkinson in 1864 & Mathew Knowles & Son in 1876 to 1881. The design of the frog indicates that it was made in the early 20th century & I have found on the 1900 map below a brickworks at London Pottery where I suspect this brick was made.


 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

Further research by myself & Amanda at Chesterfield Museum has revealed snippets of information which when put together gives us the maker of Brampton marked bricks - James Pearson Ltd.
My first reference comes from mining records which states that Brampton Colliery marked on the 1918 O.S.map below was sunk in 1899 to produce coal for the nearby pottery & brickworks after New Brampton Colliery had been closed. The owner of Brampton Colliery is revealed as James Pearson in 1907. Now Pearson's had purchased London Pottery & it's brickworks from Frederick Lipscombe in 1888. They had also purchased the nearby Oldfield Pottery in 1884 & both these works were connected to Brampton Colliery via a tramway. Oldfield Pottery is just off to the left on the map below.

  © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of Ordnance Survey 1918.


My next link is this glazed air brick which I photographed at Chesterfield Museum. It is stamped James Pearson Potteries, Chesterfield & is recorded as being made at their New Whittington works.



My final two bits of this jigsaw came about by first photographing this glazed Brampton brick below in Dave Penney's collection & with Amanda then informing me that she had found a document in the museum which states that "Pearson's Oldfield Pottery stamped their pots & bricks with Brampton when they were made for export." 


Photo by MF from the David Penney Collection.

Confirmation Update 19.10.15.
Today I have been to Chesterfield Museum to photograph some letter printing plates which the museum have unearthed & these plates confirm that James Pearson Ltd. produced bricks at their Brampton Brickworks from 1900 through to the 1920's. I have also found two Kelly's Trade Directory entries in the 1925 & 1928 editions for James Pearson Ltd. Chatsworth Road, Chesterfield in the Brick & Tile Makers section. 

With the magic of photoshop I have reversed & improved the images of these printing plates so they can be read.



James Pearson Ltd. Works - Oldfield Pottery, London Pottery, Brampton Colliery & Brampton Brickworks. 

Brampton Colliery & Brickworks, with the date starting 190_ (with a space left to hand write the day, month & year on the letter).

Oldfield & London Potteries & Brampton Brick Works, Chesterfield, with the date starting 192_ (with a space left to hand write the day, month & year on the letter).

Many Thanks to Chesterfield Museum for giving me permission to show these printing plates.

  

Wheeldon Mill



This works started life as a pottery owned by Robert Botham in 1866 followed by George Dawson who is listed in Kelly's 1876 edition as making bricks at Wheeldon Mill. Meanwhile in the 1861 & 1871 Census Joseph Blower is recorded as Master Brickmaker at the works, so one can only assume that Joseph worked for George Dawson as he is listed as a Spirit Merchant in the same two Census. 
George passes away in 1877 & the pottery/brickworks is purchased by the Aaron Madin Co. between 1877 & 1891. The Aaron Madin Co. also owned two other potteries nearby & at first only produces pottery on their newly acquired Wheeldon Mill site. 

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.
1900 map showing the location of the Wheeldon brick & pottery site.

After Aaron's death in 1875 his potteries were first run by his daughter Mary Alice Lancaster & her husband Samuel. After Samuel's death a year later in 1876 the potteries were run by Mary Alice's son Samuel Madin Lancaster (grandson to Aaron) on her behalf, still operating under the Aaron Madin Company name.
It was in 1891 that Samuel Madin Lancaster started to produce bricks on the Wheeldon Mill site in his own name & he is listed in Kelly's 1899 & 1900 editions in the Brick & Tile Makers section as S.M. Lancaster, Brimington, Chesterfield. An advert in the Derbyshire Times dated 5th December, 1891, Wanted a good Brick Burner - apply S.M. Lancaster, Wheeldon Mill Brick Yard, Whittington Moor.
The Wheeldon Mill example above may have also been made at this time under Lancaster as I have now found an entry in Kelly's 1904 edition for Aaron Madin & Co. Ltd. works Wheeldon Mill, Brimington, Chesterfield or it could have been made by Joseph Blower working for George Dawson between 1861 & the mid 1870's as Joseph is then recorded as an unemployed brickmaker in the 1881 Census.



On 5th of October 1904 the Aaron Madin Company was wound up with a resolution of voluntary winding up passed on the 22nd of September. The sale of the Wheeldon Mill Brickworks then took place on the 18th of October 1904. The potteries belonging to the company had already been deposed of between 1899 & 1900.
One sad note to end on is the entry in the 1911 Census: Strand Union Workhouse, Edmonton, Middlesex; S.M. Lancaster, Pottery Moulder. So after living the good life, Samuel ends up in the Workhouse aged 61 & he passed away some 10 years later in 1921.



C.J. Saunders


Charles James Saunders is first listed in Kelly's 1881 edition at Newbold, Chesterfield, followed by the same entry in 1887.   The 1891 entry now gives the address as Newbold cum Dunston. In the 1895 edition another brickworks is added to Newbold at Brimmington Common, but this works was very short lived because in the same year it is recorded as being in the hands of J.P. Houfton & I cover the Brimington Common brickworks next. 


 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

Finding the location of Charles's Newbold brickworks has been a bit of teaser. Trade Directory entries just gives his works address as Newbold or Newbold cum Dunston, but with more research I now believe the works marked on the 1900 map above in green, Brockwell Brick Works was his Newbold Works.   
My first lead came from a mining website which stated that in 1880 C.J. Saunders sank or re-opened Newbold Back Lane Colliery SK371719, which is the same location as the Brockwell Brickworks marked on the map above. I have marked Newbold Back Lane in yellow & Brockwell Lane in blue. 
This information was confirmed from a brickworks article by Philip Cousins who states that a 1900 inquest records a fatality at the Newbold Brickworks which was a property owned by C.J. Saunders & the said works was situated close to Brockwell Colliery SK365718. Charles had worked Brockwell Colliery from 1890. 
With me establishing that this brickworks was known as Newbold & Brockwell, I now think that the names were taken from the two roads which run top & bottom of this property
       



Now back to the timeline & in Kelly's 1899 edition, with Charles still operating at Newbold he is recorded as opening a "new" second works located on Storforth Lane, Hasland.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of Ordnance Survey 1918.
1918 map showing the location of Charles' Storforth Lane brickworks in Hasland which he had built & opened in 1899 on the former site of Storforth Lane Colliery & brickworks which had closed & was put up for sale in 1896. The site also came with it's own railway siding connecting to the Midland Railway Company's network. This may have been a deciding factor for Charles to open his second works here bringing his coal in & then transporting his bricks out. 
Both of Charles's works continue to be listed in Kelly's from 1904 through to it's 1912 edition, then from the 1916 edition only the Storforth Lane works is listed. The final two trade directories in 1936 & 41 records the company as Saunders Brickworks, Storforth Lane, Hasland. Chesterfield. The Company went into liquidation on the 4th October 1956. 


Photo by MF from the David Penney Collection.

Photo by Simon Patterson.

Photo by MF from the David Penney Collection.



Naylor

Photo by Frank Lawson.

Added 24.9.16. I have added this Naylor brick by Frank to the post as a possibility of it being made by Henry Naylor who is listed in Kelly's 1876 & White's 1879 editions at Newbold, Chesterfield. Naylor's works could have been the Brockwell brickworks which was taken over by C. J. Saunders in the 1880's.




Brimington


I first wish to thank Philip Cousins for providing me with his article that he co-wrote entitled "The Brimington Brick Company" from which most of the information below has been taken. 
There are two options to where this Brimington brick was made & I first start with the site located at Brimington Common.
Robert Cox is first recorded as brickmaker on this site at Brimington Common between 1870 & 1876. Then C.J. Saunders briefly owned the site in 1895 & the works is listed in Kelly's 1895 edition as Saunders second works. In the same year we find the brickworks is now in the hands of John Plowright Houfton who is at the same time General Manager at the Bolsover Colliery Company. 


 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1899.

1899 map showing the location of J.P. Houfton's works which he operated between 1895 & 1897 & was known as the Brimington Brick Company. No evidence exists that the Company name was ever registered & due to poor sales John closed the works in July 1897. The works was then reopened by Thomas Moor in 1899 & traded as Moor & Cropper.


  © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1918.

Moor & Cropper are listed as brickmakers at Brimington Common in Kelly's 1899 to 1922 editions & their expanded works is shown on this 1918 map.
This now begs the question who made the brick above marked Brimington ? It may have been made at the time that J.P. Houfton owned the Brimington Brick Co. or it may have been the product of the partnership of Moor & Cropper. At this moment in time no bricks have been found with the Moor & Cropper name stamped in them. 
After Moor & Cropper's works had closed in 1922 the southern part of the site fronting South Moor Road (now called Manor Road) was purchased by a local builder called Atherton who used the bricks left in the stock yard to build the properties on this land. So I expect if we can find if there is a name stamped in the bricks (Brimington or Moor & Cropper) at these properties we will have our answer.

I now move on to the second site option to where this Brimington brick may have been made. 
Simon Patterson has pointed me in the direction of another brickworks in Brimington situated on Cow Lane now Coronation Road. This works is also recorded in Philip Cousins article as being on the site of the present day Eastwood Park.
Shown on the 1900 O.S. map below this works looks like it was set up to produce bricks for the houses being built just across the road on John Street & Heywood Street. In Kelly's 1899 & 1900 Trade Directories there is an entry for George Needham, brickmaker in Brimington. He could have been the owner or brick maker at this Cow Lane site. I have since looked at a 1916 O.S. map at Chesterfield Library expecting this yard to have expanded in size by this date, but totally opposite it is marked disused & all of the houses in this area have now been built. The Cow Lane site was then purchased by G.A. Eastwood who presented the site to the parish council in 1932 for use as a recreation ground & was named Eastwood Park. 
As a footnote I have now donated this brick to Chesterfield Museum for their collection.


 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of Ordnance Survey 1900.



Henry Priestley, Whittington

Photo by Simon Patterson.

My first reference to Henry Priestley is from the 1881 Census were he is recorded aged 24, profession brickmaker & living on Sheffield Road, Whittington with his parents. Henry's father, Thomas who was born in Darfield near Barnsley had moved his family to Chesterfield & he is recorded in White's 1872 edition as brick manufacturer, but by the 1881 Census Thomas is recorded as grocer & draper. So it appears that Thomas started this works in 1872 to then pass the business over to Henry in 1881. Kelly's 1887 edition lists Henry as brickmaker at The Brushes, Whittington, Chesterfield. By the 1891 Census Thomas had died & Henry was unmarried & still living with his mother at 113, Sheffield Road, Whittington, describing himself as a shopkeeper, brick manufacturer & farmer. Henry continues to be recorded in Kelly's as brickmaker, The Brushes, Whittington up to the 1900 edition.

Also in the 1891 Census Henry's sister Myra, who had married William Edward Johnson, a joiner by trade were living with their family at 197, Sheffield Road, Whittington. One of Myra's children, Fred aged 7 in 1891 was to later work for his Uncle Henry at the brickworks & eventually become the Manager. In Kelly's 1904 to 1912 editions it lists Henry Priestley, brickmaker & the address of 197, Sheffield Road, Whittington, Chesterfield. I can only suppose that Henry was now living with his sister. Kelly's 1916 to 1922 editions just lists Henry as brick maker, Sheffield Road, Whittington, so it could have been in 1916 that Fred took over the running of the works.


 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

I have marked the location of Henry's brickworks in yellow which was just off Sheffield Road (marked red) going towards Unstone & was in an area called The Brushes, Whittington. This small hamlet had it's own school & inn built next to the quarry.
Finding the exact location of Henry's works was at first a mystery until I found a modern planning application document which stated that the land was formally owned by H. Priestley & it gave the grid reference of SK376761, the area which I have marked in yellow. I then searched for history about the Brushes Pottery which I had at first thought may have been the site of Henry's brickworks, but in this article it contained a 1904 map which showed the brickworks at same the location as I have marked on my map. 
Today the former brickworks site is derelict & the old sign on the gate gives the previous owner as Ocean Village, Europe's Premier Boat Sales. During my visit to the site I was told by a local gentleman that the chimney at the works was emblazoned with the large letters of H & P for Henry Priestley & that houses are in the planning stage to be built on the site together with the former garden centre land which was also part of the brickworks.

Peter Hawkins has told me that he knew Fred & interviewed him some twenty years ago resulting in the article that he & Maeve wrote which I found in Chesterfield Library. This article contains a more detailed account of the works including processes, plant used & a little more info about Henry's family life which makes an excellent read. I have also found from this article that Henry was eventually to reside in one of the houses which fronted the brickworks on Sheffield Road, sadly this row of cottages no longer exists, but the house numbered 197 where William & Myra Johnson, then later Fred & his Family lived & now numbered 929 still stands. 

Photo by Simon Patterson.

Photo by Simon Patterson.

Two mint examples of copping stones photographed in situ by Simon Patterson in Chesterfield.



Ludlam


Photos reproduced with the permission of Chesterfield Museum.

A. & Luke Ludlam, Boythorpe, Chesterfield, owned Boythorpe Colliery in 1858. 



Watkinson, Loads

Photo reproduced with the permission of Chesterfield Museum.

John Watkinson produced this fireclay brick at his works in Nether Loads, Holymoorside, Chesterfield between 1850 & 1870. Kelly's 1864 edition records John Watkinson as brickmaker at Nether Loads, Brampton, Chesterfield.



H.J. Edwards

Photo by Frank Lawson.

The only information that I have found for Henry J. Edwards is that he sank the Holme Close Colliery, Staveley in 1877 & he is listed as brickmaker at Newbold, Chesterfield in White's 1879 edition.



Staveley


Staveley bricks were made by the Staveley Coal & Iron Co. at it's brickworks at Barrows Hill, Staveley. The works had been built in 1929 & were in operation in the early 1930's on the former Campbell Colliery site & was known as the Campbell Brickworks. Originally the company made engineering bricks for their own use, then in later years demand for their high quality "Staveley Pressed Brick" were being used in many large building & civil contacts throughout the Midlands. 

I have found during my research that the village of Barrow Hill where most of the workers who worked at both the iron & brick works lived was built & named after Richard Barrow, founder & owner of the Staveley Coal & Iron Company between 1840 & 1865. A painting of Richard Barrow which is at Chesterfield Museum can be seen at this link. 
http://www.bbc.co.uk/arts/yourpaintings/paintings/richard-barrow-17871865-owner-of-staveley-coal-iron-co-18461394



Photo from Chesterfield Museum Collection.
The kilns & railway sidings at the works. Looks like they have just received a fresh delivery of coal.   

In 1960 the Staveley C. & I. Co. was taken over by Stewarts & Lloyds & was merged with the Stanton Ironworks Co. forming Stanton & Staveley. Then in 1967 Stewarts & Lloyds became part of the nationalised British Steel Corporation & the Campbell Brickworks was sold off to Innes Lee Industries in 1971. The two kilns at the brickworks were built in 1929 & 1931 & were coal fired until 1973 when they were converted to natural gas. 



Four photos of the works in action from the company's advertising pamphlet. 


Then in 1988 Innes Lee Industries sold Campbell & another brickworks in Scunthorpe to the Tarmac Group. With the recession & demand for bricks at an all time low the Campbell Brickworks was closed with the loss of 52 jobs in 1992.
All was not lost at the Campbell Brickworks, the saviour of the Works was an ex-management buy-out & the Phoenix Brick Co. was born & I cover that works next.  

A very detailed account of the Staveley/Campbell Brickworks can be read at this link. On pages 4 to 8.
http://britishbricksoc.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/BBS_125_2013_Dec_.pdf  





Phoenix Brick Co.



As wrote in the Staveley entry, the Phoenix Brick Co. was formed through an ex-works management buy-out headed by Philip Taylor in partnership with Fitzwise from the Tarmac Group & was up & running in 1993. Now running the kilns on methane gas from landfill with natural gas as a back up, the works successfully produced a wide range of bricks including once again, pressed bricks. Phoenix continued until another recession hit & the works finally closed on the 31st of December 2012. 

Photo by Simon Patterson.
Simon took this photo on a cold winters day in December of 2009.



Four photographs of the works in 2010 taken by Maria Barnes of Chesterfield Museum during her visit to the works for a Museum project titled " Made in Chesterfield" which was displayed in the Museum in 2010.








A video of the demolition of the chimneys (12th Dec.2013) can be seen at this link. Please note that there is an advert before the video starts.





Many thanks to the following people for providing me with information & photos for this post.

Malcolm Adlington & Michael Hardy - Wasp Nest.

Philip Cousins & Cliff Lea - Brimington. 
Philip is the co-author of an article called The Brimington Brick Co. which appeared in the Nedias Journal Vol. 1 & the Nedias website is run by Cliff Lea. 
http://nedias.co.uk/?page_id=300 

Peter & Maeve Hawkins, Chesterfield & District Local History Society - Priestley.

Simon Patterson - photos of the Priestley bricks & Campbell Brickworks.

Maria Barnes & Amanda Brassington at Chesterfield Museum for supplying me with photos, information & allowing me to photograph their brick collection of which 3 images have been used in this post. 

Chesterfield Library - Maps & help in finding information.

And of course Frank Lawson for the use of his many photos.

I also wish to thank the following people :-
Contributors to the Chesterfield Forum website. 
Mike Chapman & the British Brick Society - Staveley/Campbell Brickworks.
The information in their articles has been invaluable in writing this post.






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