Friday, 15 July 2016

Nottingham Brickworks - part 2 - Carlton, St. Ann's, Beacon Hill & Sneinton

Since taking Part 1 offline for an update I have found that search engines are taking you to a blank page, so here is the direct link to my Part 1 post - Mapperley & Thorneywood.

In this post I am covering brickmakers that operated in the Carlton, St. Ann's, Beacon Hill & Sneinton areas of Nottingham. I have found many trade directory entries for brickmakers working in this area & even found the location of their yards on maps, but their named bricks have so far not turned up & only a handful are shown in this post. We will only know if they stamped their bricks when examples are found, so the search continues & if their bricks do turn up, photos will be added as & when.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.
Carlton yards 1 to 6.

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.
St. Ann's, Beacon Hill & Sneinton yards 7 to 10.

I have used two 1900 OS maps to show the locations of the ten yards which are covered in this post. Most of the yards had more than one owner, so I have numbered each yard & will write about each in turn. I have to say that from trade directory descriptions, the name of their works differers in each entry, but hopefully I have assigned each of these makers to the correct works. Brickmakers which I am not sure of the location of their yards I have listed at the end of the post. I have already covered William Burgass/NPBC's two yards (located off Carlton Road & coloured cream) in my first Nottingham post.

Yard 1 - Star Lane/Dale Road, Carlton.

After establishing Dale Road was previously called Star Lane the brickmakers & companies who worked on this site fell into place. I have found that this yard is shown on maps dated 1875 to 1946, but was not in constant operation & is marked as disused on several old maps between each owner. So the first trade directory entry I have found for this yard in Kelly's 1885 edition is for the Star Brick Co. Carlton Hill, Carlton. The 1891 entry is the same with the addition of Benjamin Gregory as manager. This yard is then marked disused on the 1900 OS map, so taking into account that maps were surveyed two years earlier the Star Brick Co. closed between 1891 & 1898. 
This yard then reopened as the Carlton Hill Brick Co. with Albert Vass as proprietor & is listed in Kelly's 1904 & 08 editions on Star Lane, Carlton. Around 1910 sees the renaming of Star Lane & Kelly's 1912 edition & the 1912 OS map below now records that this works is now on Dale Road. We then find that this yard is once again marked disused on a revised map dated 1919, so the Carlton Hill Co. may have closed not long after 1912, as the company does not appear in Kelly's 1916 edition.

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NCC/Ordnance Survey 1912.

The next trade directory listing for this yard is for The Gotham Co. Ltd. offices, Bentinck Buildings, Wheelergate, Nottingham, works, Dale Road, Carlton & this company is recorded in Kelly's 1922 edition through to the last available directory in 1956. The company is also listed in the 1949 Directory of the British Clayworks at The Star Brickworks, Dale Road, Carlton. The year the works closed is unknown & this company may have been the last owners of this yard. New information received from Mike Chapman has revealed that the Gotham Co. purchased the freehold to the Dale Road brickworks in 1919. 
Now The Gotham Co. Ltd. is first listed in the Brick & Tile Makers section in Kelly's 1912 edition & then in the 1916 edition with offices at Bentinck Buildings & depot, Castle Boulevard, Nottingham, but with no reference to the location of it's works. They were not at the Dale Road works at this date as the Carlton Hill Brick Co. were still operating this yard in 1912. So further investigation & information received has revealed that the Gotham Company founded by Job Nightingale Derbyshire were primarily gypsum producers with three mines. The Company was incorporated in December 1897 after taking over the Victoria Mineral & Plaster Co. Their Gotham & Thrumpton mines extracted gypsum & the Cropwell Bishop mine extracted gypsum & marl. Now there are two brick yards in Cropwell Bishop marked on a map dated 1899, so the Gotham Company could have owned one of these yards & produced bricks at Cropwell Bishop as recorded in Kelly's 1912 & 1916 editions before purchasing the Dale Road, Carlton works in 1919. This theory is plausible, but I still have to find firm evidence for the company owning a brickworks in Cropwell Bishop. If only the 1912 & 16 trade directories had named the location of the company's brick works then we would have had the answer !

Lorna Ellans sent me this Dale brick which she photographed in Basford, Nottingham. More than likely it will be a brickmaker by the name of Dale, but I have found no reference to him in trade directories. It may have some connection to this Dale Road brickworks, but that has yet to be proven. If anyone has any information on this brick, please get in touch. Thanks. 

Yard 2 - Standhill Brick Works.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NCC/Ordnance Survey 1887.

This yard is shown in operation on a 1875 OS map, but my first trade directory listing for this works is in Kelly's 1888 edition & it was owned by Buxton & Walker. I have found that Buxton & Walker had owned yard 3 in 1885 & write about that works next. Going back to Standhill we find that in Kelly's 1891 edition the entry is now Edward Christopher Buxton, Standhill Road, Carlton, so the partnership of Buxton & Walker must have ended. We then find that the 1900 edition records Mrs. Ruth Buxton as owner of the yard, so one can assume that Edward had passed away. There is another change of ownership at this works as Kelly's 1904 edition now lists W & J Broughton as owners at Standhill Road. I have found that William Broughton is recorded as previously owning another Carlton brick works (yard 4) on his own in Kelly's 1888 to 1900 editions before moving to Standhill & I write about that works later in the post. How long the Broughton family produced bricks at the Standhill works is unknown as there are no more trade directory entries after 1904 & the works is shown disused on the 1912 OS map.

I photograph this J. & W. B brick at Wollaton Hall Industrial Museum so there is the possibility that it could have been made by J. & William Broughton at Standhill in 1904, but I have also found another trade directory listing in Kelly's 1876 edition for J. & William Buxton at Kimberley. The Museum has been unable to identify the maker of this brick, so it could have been made by either of these two makers. 

Yard 3 - Buntings Lane.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NCC/Ordnance Survey 1887.

This brick yard was located just off Main Street West / Carlton Hill. The 1887 map above shows this yard had it's entrance off Carlton Hill, but on the 1875 map it show this section of road as Main Street West & this road address ties in with one of the brickmakers that worked this site. 
So I first start in 1876 when Henry Bunting is listed in Kelly's 1876  & 1881 editions as being a brickmaker in Carlton. The reason why I have put Henry Bunting to this yard is that when this works finally closed the access road to this works was named Buntings Lane & houses were built along it. Buxton & Walker are next listed in Kelly's 1885 edition at Main Street West, Carlton & I am also taking this address as this works. Buxton & Walker only worked this yard for about three years as we then find in Kelly's 1888 edition that the pair are now listed as owning the Standhill Brickworks (yard 2). Buntings yard was also accessible from Southcliffe Road & we next find in Kelly's 1891 edition that James Rouse Lacy is recorded as brickmaker at Southcliffe Road, Carlton & I am again matching this maker to this yard. I have found on an old map from this date that their were only a few houses built on Southcliffe Road, so there is the option of Southcliffe Road being James home address, but in the main the address given in trade directories is normally the works address. 
I have found that there are no more trade directory entries relating to this yard after 1891 & the 1912 OS map no longer shows this brickworks. Also the entrance road into this yard is now shown as Buntings Lane named after Henry Bunting.

Yard 4 - Church Street.

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NCC/Ordnance Survey 1912.

Church Street was formerly known as Newgate Steet & it is the red coloured brickworks shown on the 1912 map above. This works appears on maps dating from 1875 to 1937 & the first trade directory entry that I have for this yard is William Brookes, Newgate Street, Carlton in Kelly's 1885 edition. The next entry for this yard is William Broughton, Mount Pleasant Road, Carlton in Kelly's 1888 edition. I am taking Mount Pleasant Road (next street to the yard) as William's home address because in Kelly's 1891 edition it now records him at Newgate Lane brickworks. To slightly confuse the matter Kelly's 1895 edition records William at Carlton Hill, but I am still taking this to be the same yard, however Kelly's 1900 edition now lists William brickmaking at Standhill Brickworks (yard 2) under the company name of W. & J. Broughton.
With William Broughton leaving the Newgate/Church Street yard sometime just before 1900 this yard or its owners are now no longer directly named in anymore trade directories but the works is still shown on the 1937 OS map & on the 1912 map above it looks that it is going strong & in full production. 
So who was operating this yard ? I have formed this theory, but I do not have any firm evidence to back it up as yet. From Kelly's 1900 edition there is an additional works of  '& Carlton' added to the entry for the Nottingham Patent Brick Co. This Carlton works appears separate to the Thorneywood Works, so I am reading this as another yard in Carlton, hence my thoughts on NPBC being the new owners of the Church Street works. NPBC's Carlton works entry last appears in Kelly's 1925 edition, but as said this works is still shown on the 1937 OS map & it may have still remained opened after this date ? Another clue to the ownership of this works comes in 1969 when Charles Leslie Bennett was managing director of NPBC & it was under his guidance that five of NPBC's  works were closed & all production was moved to Dorket Head, Arnold works. So I am taking Carlton along with Mapperley x2, Thorneywood & Radford as the works which closed. If I do find any firm evidence for my theory on this Church Street works, it will be added at a later date.

Yard 5 - Mar Hill Brickworks.

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NCC/Ordnance Survey 1912.

Coloured green on the 1912 map above this works is first recorded in Kelly's 1900 edition as being owned by the Mar Hill Brick Co. & being situated just off Urban Road, Carlton, Nottingham with Arthur Morris recorded as owner. On the following line there is Arthur Morris’s name & the address of Station Street, Carlton which may have have been his office. 

Photo by Mike Chapman.

Kelly's 1904 edition now records T. Clarke & Son as owners of this works, then the 1908 & 12 editions records the owner as John George Deabill. This works is shown on OS maps from 1887 to 1937, so who owned this works before & after the named brickmakers above is unknown.

Yard 6 - Stonepit Road.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1885.

Shown as disused on the 1885 map above I have recorded this yard off Stonepit Road (now Cavendish Road) because from trade directories I have found several brickmakers listed as making bricks at Carlton but with no reference to their yards, so any of the following could have owned this small yard. J. Taylor, New Carlton Kelly's 1855, Thomas Norman, Carlton, Kelly's 1876 & Edward Reach, Carlton, Kelly's 1876. I also have to add that any of the other Carlton yards that I have already written about may have been the location their yards. 

Yard 7 - Edgar Rise, St. Ann's.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NCC/Ordnance Survey 1875.

Edgar Rise brickworks is shown on maps dated 1875, 1885 & 1900, but is not shown on the 1912 map. The first trade directory entry that I have is for Edward Watts, Pease Hill Road which I believe is this yard as Edgar Rise runs off Pease Hill Road. The next entry in Kelly's 1904 edition is for Enoch Hind & he is listed as brickmaker at Edgar Rise, so we know that this yard was still operational around 1904/5. Edgar Rise & part of Pease Hill Road no longer exists & this area of land is now the playing field & grounds to Sycamore Primary School. 
I do have an entry for Daniel Crosby in White's 1864 edition at St, Ann's Road, Nottingham, but I am unsure if this entry is the Edgar Rise brickworks. 

Yard 8 - Bluebell Hill Road.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NCC/Ordnance Survey 1875.

I have found that the road on which this brick works was situated is shown as Bluebell Hill Road on maps up to 1946, but today this road has been renamed Beacon Hill Rise. There is still a section of Bluebell Hill Road that remains & it runs from the roundabout at Beacon Hill Rise & Southampton Street to the junction with Colborn Street. 

William Whitehead is listed in White's 1853 edition at St. Ann's Road, then in Kelly's 1855 edition, offices 2 Albert Street, works, Beacon Hill, St. Ann's Road. So there is the option that William's Beacon Hill / St. Ann's Road yard entries both relate to the Bluebell Hill Road works because a road called Beacon Hill is shown opposite the works on the 1875 map above & this yard was situated between Beacon Hill road & St. Ann's Road. William is also listed in Hunt's 1858 mining statistics as operating at Beacon Hill producing an estimated 2,500,000 bricks in 1858 with the freeholder of the site given as Freemen of Nottingham. 
I then have to offer an alternative site which is close by for William Whitehead's yard which Jeff Sheard has identified as being on Plantagenet Street Recreation Ground. As the earliest map that I have is 1875, this Plantagenet Street recreation ground yard is not shown only houses in 1875. There is also another recorded brick yard nearby which has an outside chance as to being William's yard & this yard was located on Robin Hood Street. Today's Victoria Park now occupies this site & William Terry is recorded as making bricks on Robin Hood Street in White's 1864 edition, so Terry could have followed Whitehead at this yard ? 
To throw a spanner in the works I have just found in my notes from an article at Nottingham Library, that in 1852 William Whitehead owned three large yards on Beacon Hill ! So it maybe that all three yards which I have wrote about were owned by William ?  Only further research if it is available will reveal the answer.

John W. Lee, Bluebell Hill Road, Nottingham is listed as brickmaker at this yard in White's 1864 edition, so with this works address given as Bluebell Hill Road we definitely know that John was at this yard. 
The 1885 map no longer shows this yard & houses have been built on this former brick yard which was located between Turner Street & Bluebell Hill Road. Today these houses along with the houses on several other roads in this area have been demolished & the whole area has been redesigned & replaced with the houses of Kelvedon Gardens.

Yard 9 - The Wells Road.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NCC/Ordnance Survey 1912.

This brickworks appears on maps from 1875 through to 1937. With studying the 1937 map this works may have been closed & in a state of dereliction by this date as the last trade directory entry that I have for this works being operational is 1916.

The first trade directory reference to this site is in Kelly's 1881 edition when The Wells Road is given as the office address of the Bulwell Brick Co. with it's works listed as Bulwell (Kett Street), but with the 1875 map showing an operational brickworks on The Wells Road, I expect the Bulwell Brick Co. was producing bricks on this site in 1881. We next find in Kelly's 1885 edition that BBCo's listing is The Wells Road & Kett Street, Bulwell, so bricks were definitely being produced on the Wells Road site by 1885.
The Wells Road works continues to be listed alongside Kett Street in Kelly's up to it's 1916 edition, whether this works closed soon after this date is unknown. My thoughts are that with this works being shown operational on the 1912 map & it's last Kelly's entry being 1916 the works was mothballed as a result of men going to fight in WW1. The works may have then not reopened after the war & as shown on the 1937 map  the works appears to be closed & derelict, as it is not marked as a Brick Works & it just shows the clay pits with some buildings still shown standing. The Bulwell Brick Co. according to trade directory entries did continue to produce bricks at Kett Street from 1916 through to 1932/3, when the Company is last recorded in Kelly's 1932 edition. Bricks made at Bulwell's Kett Street works will be shown in my next Nottingham post.

Yard 10 - Carlton Road / Sneinton Hill.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NCC/Ordnance Survey 1875.

1875 map showing the location of the Nottingham Builders' Brickworks on Carlton Road, Nottingham. I have found references to this yard also being classed as Sneinton Hill or Sneinton Elements & even Carlton Hill, therefore I have included the Terry Brothers & several other brickmakers in this section who could have owned/worked this yard before the Nottingham Builders' Brick Co. Jeff Sheard in his book has attributed the Terry Brothers to owning this works before NBB Co.

My first reference to The Nottingham Builders' Brick Co. comes from an article in the British Brick Society's magazine & it states that because the Nottingham Patent Brick Co. had the exclusive rights to the Hoffman kiln process, the Nottingham Builders' Brick Co. under the guidance of Edwin G. Loverseed built two kilns of an alternative design by Herbert Guthrie. These kilns were patented in 1877 & they were the first fender-fired continuous kilns of this type to be built.

It appears Edwin Loverseed before owning NBB Co. made bricks in his own name (example below) & he is listed in White's 1864 edition at Woodborough Road, Nottingham. Then in Kelly's 1876 edition Edwin is listed as brickmaker at 86, St Ann's Well Road, Nottingham, to which I am taking to be his home address. At this 1876 date, Edwin may have been the founder & owner of NBB Co. & as we already know from the BBS article Edwin was definitely in charge of the Company in 1877.

Photo by MF courtesy of Nottingham City Museums & Galleries.

The Nottingham Builders' Brick Co. is first listed in Kelly's 1876 edition, followed by the 1881 edition at Sneinton Hill, Nottingham with James Whitehouse as manager. It is in Kelly's 1885 edition that it now records the works as being on Carlton Road. Kelly's 1891 edition records the Company as having a railway siding connecting the works to GNR line at Thorneywood. This entry continues until the 1904 edition when the works are referred to as Sneinton Hill again. Then from Kelly's 1908 through to the 1941 edition the works address is given as Carlton Road. From a 1933 article in the Nottingham Archives, NBB Co. Ltd. is recorded with offices & works on Carlton Road, Nottingham & with sidings at Thorneywood LNER. The Directors are listed as J. Phillipps (chairman), J. Stafford, J.T. Rayson & H. Stafford. The works closed sometime in the late 1950's / early 1960's.

Photo courtesy of the Mike Chapman Collection.

With this brick having fancy lettering it may have been made in the 1880's. The first one shown in this entry & the white brick below will have been made after 1900.

Photo by MF courtesy of Nottingham City Museums & Galleries.

With photographing this Nottingham Builders blue brick at Nottingham Museums, it poses the question of where it was made because clay required for blue bricks is only found in the West Midlands. If I find the answer, I will update the post.  

This Whitehouse, Nottingham brick was photographed together with the red NBB Co. brick at Wollaton Hall Industrial Museum & the only candidate I have found for the maker of this brick is James Whitehouse who is recorded as manager of Nottingham Builders Brick Co. between 1881 & 1900. It is unknown if this brick was made during James' time at NBB Co. but it is my best option as I do not have any trade directory entries or other references for a Whitehouse brickmaking in Nottingham. 

Update 11.9.19.
With just photographing a F.G. Sharpe brick which is in Nottingham Museums collection I have now added it to this post.

Photo by MF courtesy of Nottingham City Museums & Galleries.

Fredrick G. Sharpe is listed at Queens Road, Nottingham in Wright's 1862 & 64 editions. This will have been his office or home address. Meanwhile White's 1864 edition records F.G. Sharpe at Carlton Hill, then Wright's 1866 & 68 editions records him at St. Ann's Hill Road, Nottingham. This St. Ann's Hill Road address may be the yard which Jeff Sheard has been identified as being on Cranmer Street / St. Anns Hill Road. I have coloured these roads yellow & red respectively on the 1880 OS map below which does not show a brickworks at this date, but there is land not built on where a brick yard may have existed.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NCC/Ordnance Survey 1880.

I now return to the Nottingham Builders Brick Co. & as previously wrote other brickmakers may have worked at this works before NBB Co., but I do not have any firm evidence to back this up & from the various listings of these brickmakers, their yards could also refer to Yards 1 & 3 above, as these two yards are also classed as being on Carlton Road or Carlton Hill. Because I have been unable to establish the exact location of the yards owned by these brickmakers, I have just listed each brickmaker with the information found. 

Joseph Terry, Sneinton Elements, White's 1853, then 1852 stats from Nottingham Library, Thomas & Joseph Terry, two yards Carlton Hill, 3,000,000 bricks, then Hunt's 1858 mining stats, Joseph Terry, (executors), Carlton Hill. 

Moses Wood, 1852 stats, Carlton Road, 1,500,000 bricks.

John Drury, 1852 stats, Carlton Road, 500,000 bricks. Jeff Sheard has identified the location of this yard as being where part of King Edward's Recreation Ground is today.

Hopkins & Co. 1852 stats, Carlton Hill.

John Drew, Sneinton Elements, White's 1853.

Joseph Hornbuckle, Old Sneinton, Kelly's 1855, then Hunt's 1858, Carlton Road, freeholder & brickmaker, 750,000 bricks, then Carlton Hill, White's 1864.

J. Taylor, New Carlton, Kelly's 1855, then Hunt's 1858, freeholder, Mrs. Smith, brickmaker, J. Taylor, Carlton Road, 600,000 bricks.

James Lee, Carlton Hill, White's 1864.

Thomas Terry, Carlton Hill, White's 1864, then Hunt's 1858, freeholder, Earl Manvers, brickmaker, Thomas Terry, Carlton Road, brick production - 900,000 bricks. (Brother to Joseph Terry). 

J.S. Ferguson, Carlton Road, Hunt's 1858, freeholder & brickmaker, 1,000,000 bricks.

William James, Carlton Road, Hunt's 1858, freeholder & brickmaker, 1,5000,000 bricks.

T & W Terry, Robin Hood Street, Wright's 1862, William Terry, Robin Hood Street & Carlton Hill, White's 1864.

Thomas Norman, Carlton, Kelly's 1876.

Edward Reach, Carlton, Kelly's 1876.

John Needham, Thorneywood Lane, New Sneinton, Kelly's1876.

Jason Clayton, Carlton Road & Wollaton, Kelly's1885.

I wish to thank the following people for their help & the use of their information & maps in this post.

Nottingham Museums & Galleries - my photos of the Museums bricks in this post.

St Ann's Allotments Visitor Centre - my photo of the Whitehead brick which is displayed at the centre.

Nottingham Central Library.

Nottingham Archives.

Mike Chapman.

Jeff Sheard.

British Brick Society.

Nottingham C.C. Insight, National Library for Scotland & Ordnance Survey - maps.

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